Republic Day

Republic Day honors the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.[1] The Constitution was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, completing the country's transition towards becoming an independent republic. 26 January was chosen as the Republic day because it was on this day in 1930 when Declaration of Indian Independence (Purna Swaraj) was proclaimed by the Indian National Congress as opposed to the Dominion status offered by British Regime. It is one of three national holidays in India, the other two being Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti.
The Lohri

Lohri (Gurmukhi: ਲੋਹੜੀ, Devanagari: लोहड़ी, Shahmukhi: لوہڑی) is a popular Punjabi folk festival, celebrated by people from the Punjab region of South Asia The origins of Lohri are many and link the festival to Punjab region. Many people believe the festival commemorates the passing of the winter solstice. The belief is that Lohri represents the longest night before winter solstice as Lohri was originally celebrated on the night before winter solstice followed by the shortest day of the year which is observed on Maghi. About sixteen centuries ago, these festivals were actually observed at the point of winter solstice which now generally occurs around 21, 22 or 23 December.
Pongal

Pongal is a major celebration in India and people celebrate it for about four days. The first day is called Bhogi. Many people burn and get rid of old household items and purchase new household items on this day. This marks the start of a new cycle. The second day is Perum, also known as Surya Pongal, and is the most important day of Pongal. Many people worship the sun god, Lord Surya by offering prayers on this day. Many people also wear new clothes and women decorate houses with Kolam (designs) using rice flour and red clay. Mattu Pongal is the third day and includes worshipping cattle because it is believed that cattle help give a good harvest. The fourth day is called Kanum Pongal, which is when many people go on picnic and spend time with families and friends. The Pongal festival also includes exchanging gifts, dancing, and bull taming contests.
Makar Sakranti

Makar Sankranti (also known as Makara Sankranti), according to the Hindu calendar, marks the transition of the sun into the zodiacal sign of Makara (Capricorn) on its celestial path, which is the first change in the zodiac after the winter solstice.[3] The festival is celebrated in various parts of the Indian subcontinent to observe the day which marks the shift of the sun into ever-lengthening days. The festival is a seasonal observance as well as a religious celebration. Makara Sankranti is a solar event making it one of the few Hindu festivals which fall on the same date in local calendars every year: 14 January, with some exceptions when the festival is celebrated on 15 January. Although the festival has been celebrated on January 14 for the last 100 years, it will from 2019 be marked on January 15 or January 16, except in 2021
Vasant Panchami

Vasant Panchami (also called Basant Panchami) or Nepal Vidya Bariti refers to the following festivals: the religious Hindu festival of Saraswati Puja also called Shree Panchami; Sufi Basant observed in Sufi shrines; the seasonal spring festival of Vasant Panchami observed throughout Nepal and many regions of India ; the Basant Festival of Kites of the Punjab region; observance in Gurdwaras as a Sikh festival; the birthday of the Deo-Sun God in Bihar and a harvest festival. The festivals are celebrated on the fifth day of Magha month of Bikram Sambat.
Holi

Holi is an ancient Hindu religious festival which has become popular with non-Hindus in many parts of South Asia, as well as people of other communities outside Asia. It is celebrated at the approach of the vernal equinox, on the Phalguna Purnima (Full Moon). The festival date, which is determined by the Hindu calendar, varies from year to year on the Gregorian calendar, typically coming in March, sometimes in February. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, and other regions of the world with significant populations of Hindus or people of Indian origin and Nepalese diaspora. In recent years the festival has spread to parts of Europe and North America as a spring celebration of love, frolic, and colours.
©16th Congress of the Asian Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AsAES 2018). All rights reserved. 
Tel. +91-522-2668777 Fax. +91-522-2668777 E-mail : info@asaes2018.org
Sanjay Gandhi PG Inst. of Medical Sciences Lucknow, India